The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Hazardous Substance Basic Research and Training Program (Superfund Research Program) provides practical, scientific solutions to protect health, the environment, and communities. Superfund Research Program funds a number of large- and smaller-scale projects in academic institutions and private companies around the United States that are focused on protecting the public from exposure to hazardous substances. A variety of industrial solvents, metals, pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants are found in contaminated water, soil, and air at hazardous wastesites throughout the United States. Superfund Research Program funds grants on basic biological, environmental, and engineering processes to find science-based practical solutions to reduce or prevent exposures to hazardous substances. These activities complement the work of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and other federal and state agencies. Superfund Research Program also has a strong training component, supporting many outstanding graduate students and postdoctoral researchers. Finally, the Superfund Research Program funds a variety of outreach efforts to facilitate the translation of the research findings to the communities and organizations most concerned with hazardous substances, with the ultimate goal of improving public health.